Ultimate Guide: 10 Powerful Insights on Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes

Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes Topics in the Chapter:

  1. Introduction
  2. Systems for Control and Coordination in Animals
  3. Nervous System
    • Receptors
  4. Neuron
    • Functioning of Neuron
    • Parts of Neuron
    • Synapse
  5. Reflex Action
    • Types of Responses
    • Need for Reflex Action
  6. Human Nervous System
  7. Human Brain
    • Fore-Brain
    • Mid-Brain
    • Hind-Brain
    • Protection of Brain and Spinal Cord
    • Coordination between Nervous and Muscular Tissue
    • Limitation of Electric Communication/Nervous System
    • Chemical Combination
  8. Coordination in Plants
    • Independent of Growth
    • Dependent on Growth
  9. Plant Hormones
  10. Hormones in Animals
    • Endocrine Glands and Their Functions
  11. Importance of Iodine
  12. Diabetes
    • Cause of Diabetes
    • Treatment of Diabetes
    • Feedback Mechanism


  • All living organisms respond and react to changes in their environment.
  • These changes, known as stimuli, include light, heat, cold, sound, smell, and touch.
  • Both plants and animals respond to stimuli but in different ways. Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes

Systems for Control and Coordination in Animals

  • Control and coordination in animals are managed by two main systems: Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes
    1. Nervous System
    2. Endocrine System

Nervous System

  • Control and coordination are provided by nervous and muscular tissues.
  • Nervous tissue comprises an organized network of nerve cells or neurons, which conduct information via electrical impulses.


  • Receptors are specialized tips of some nerve cells that detect information from the environment. Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes
  • These are located in sense organs:
    • Ear: Phonoreceptors (sound), balance.
    • Eyes: Photoreceptors (light), vision.
    • Skin: Thermoreceptors (temperature), touch.
    • Nose: Olfactory receptors (smell).
    • Tongue: Gustatory receptors (taste).


  • The structural and functional unit of the nervous system.

Functioning of Neuron

  • Receptors acquire information as chemical reactions that create electrical impulses.
  • Impulses travel from the dendrite to the cell body and then to the axon end.
  • Chemicals released at the axon end cross the synapse to start similar impulses in the next neuron. Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes

Parts of Neuron

  1. Dendrite: Acquires information.
  2. Cell Body: Transmits impulses.
  3. Axon: Transmits impulses from the cell body to the next neuron.


  • A gap between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another.
  • Converts electrical signals to chemical signals for transmission. Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes

Reflex Action

  • Reflex action is a quick, immediate response to a stimulus (e.g., knee jerk, withdrawal from hot objects).
  • Reflex arc: Pathway through which nerve impulses pass during reflex action. Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes
  • Types of Responses:
    1. Voluntary: Controlled by the forebrain (e.g., talking, writing).
    2. Involuntary: Controlled by the mid and hind brain (e.g., heartbeat, respiration).
    3. Reflex Action: Controlled by the spinal cord (e.g., withdrawal from heat).

Need for Reflex Actions

  • Reflex actions provide quick responses to avoid harm, often involving the spinal cord instead of the brain to save time. Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes

Human Nervous System

  • Consists of:
    1. Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord.
    2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Cranial and spinal nerves.

Human Brain

  • Main coordinating center with three major parts: Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes
    1. Fore-brain
    2. Mid-brain
    3. Hind-brain


  • The most complex part, consisting of the cerebrum.
  • Functions: Thinking, voluntary actions, memory, sensory integration, hunger.

Mid-brain Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes

  • Controls involuntary actions like pupil size and reflex movements.


  • Composed of:
    1. Cerebellum: Posture, balance, precision in voluntary actions.
    2. Medulla: Involuntary actions (e.g., blood pressure, vomiting).
    3. Pons: Regulation of respiration.

Protection of Brain and Spinal Cord

  • Brain: Protected by a fluid-filled balloon (shock absorber) within the cranium.
  • Spinal Cord: Enclosed in the vertebral column.

Coordination between Nervous and Muscular Tissue

  • Voluntary actions require brain signals to muscles.
  • CNS and PNS facilitate communication throughout the body.

Limitations of Electric Communication/Nervous System

  1. Limited to cells connected by nervous tissue.
  2. Cells need time to reset before transmitting another impulse.
  3. Plants lack a nervous system.

Chemical Communication

  • Overcomes limitations of electric communication through hormones.

Coordination in Plants

  • Types of Movements:
    1. Independent of Growth: Immediate responses (e.g., touch-me-not plant).
    2. Dependent on Growth: Directional movements (tropism) like phototropism, geotropism, chemotropism, and hydrotropism.

Plant Hormones

  • Chemical compounds coordinating growth and responses.
  • Main hormones:
    1. Auxin: Growth towards light.
    2. Gibberellin: Stem growth.
    3. Cytokinins: Cell division.
    4. Abscisic Acid: Growth inhibition, stress response.

Hormones in Animals

  • Endocrine Glands: Secrete hormones into the blood.
  • Key hormones and functions:
    1. Thyroxine (Thyroid): Metabolism regulation.
    2. Growth Hormone (Pituitary): Growth and development.
    3. Adrenaline (Adrenal): Emergency responses.
    4. Insulin (Pancreas): Blood sugar regulation.
    5. Sex Hormones: Puberty changes (testosterone, estrogen).
Control and Coordination Class 10 Notes

Importance of Iodine

  • Essential for thyroxine production (metabolism regulation).
  • Deficiency causes goiter (swollen neck).


  • Cause: Insulin deficiency.
  • Treatment: Insulin injections.

Feedback Mechanism

  • Ensures precise hormone secretion to avoid harmful effects.
  • Example: Blood sugar regulation by insulin.

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